# Heat and Light from Electricity

How does energy change from one form to another?

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### Requirements

Discover how electricity can be converted into other forms of energy such as light and heat. Connect resistors and holiday light bulbs to simple circuits and monitor the temperature over time. Investigate the differences in temperature between the circuit with the resistor and the circuit using the bulb.

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Subject
Physics

Focus Area
Modeling and Simulation

Middle School

CC BY 4.0

### AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008)

#### 4. The Physical Setting

##### 4D. The Structure of Matter
• 4D/M9**. By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that materials vary in how they respond to electric currents, magnetic forces, and visible light or other electromagnetic waves.
##### 4E. Energy Transformations
• 4E/M4*. By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that energy appears in different forms and can be transformed within a system. Motion energy is associated with the speed of an object. Thermal energy is associated with the temperature of an object. Gravitational energy is associated with the height of an object above a reference point. Elastic energy is associated with the stretching or compressing of an elastic object. Chemical energy is associated with the composition of a substance. Electrical energy is associated with an electric current in a circuit. Light energy is associated with the frequency of electromagnetic waves.
##### 4G. Forces of Nature
• 4G/M4** (NSES). By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that electrical circuits require a complete loop through which an electrical current can pass.

#### 8. The Designed World

##### 8C. Energy Sources and Use
• 8C/M8** (SFAA). By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that people have invented ingenious ways of deliberately bringing about energy transformations that are useful to them.
• 8C/H6** (SFAA). By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that the useful energy output of a device-that is, what energy is available for further change-is always less than the energy input, with the difference usually appearing as thermal energy. One goal in the design of such devices is to make them as efficient as possible-that is, to maximize the useful output for a given input.
• 8C/H7** (SFAA). By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that during any transformation of energy, there is inevitably some dissipation of energy into the environment. In this practical sense, energy gets "used up," even though it is still around somewhere.

#### 9. The Mathematical World

##### 9B. Symbolic Relationships
• 9B/M2*. By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that rates of change can be computed from differences in magnitudes and vice versa.
• 9B/M3*. By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that graphs can show a variety of possible relationships between two variables. As one variable increases uniformly, the other may do one of the following: increase or decrease steadily, increase or decrease faster and faster, get closer and closer to some limiting value, reach some intermediate maximum or minimum, alternately increase and decrease, increase or decrease in steps, or do something different from any of these.

#### 11. Common Themes

##### 11A. Systems
• 11A/M1. By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that a system can include processes as well as things.
• 11A/M2. By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to others. The output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts. Such feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole.

#### 12. Habits of Mind

##### 12C. Manipulation and Observation
• 12C/M3*. By the end of the 8th grade, students should be able to make accurate measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature by using appropriate devices.

<a href="">The Concord Consortium. Heat and Light from Electricity. Concord: The Concord Consortium, 2010, September 23.</a>

AIP
Heat and Light from Electricity (The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2010, September 23), WWW Document, (https://concord.org/).

AJP
Heat and Light from Electricity (The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2010, September 23), WWW Document, (https://concord.org/).

APA
Heat and Light from Electricity. (2010, September 23). Retrieved 2017, August 20, from The Concord Consortium: https://concord.org/

Disclaimer: The Concord Consortium offers citation styles as a guide only. We cannot offer interpretations about citations as this is an automated procedure.

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### Related Resources

This resource is a part of the Concord Consortium's Innovative Technology in Science Inquiry project.

Middle School
Subject
Physics
Focus Area
Modeling and Simulation
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